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Cultural Issues in Criminal Defense - Third Edition

ISBN: 978-1-57823-271-0
Author: Linda Friedman Ramirez, Editor
Page Count: 1142
Published: August 2010
Media Desc: 1 Hardcover Volume. Index.
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About the Book:
The one essential treatise for representing immigrant and diverse clients, up to date with Padilla v Kentucky, with jurisprudence and practice tips relevant to all stages of representation, from interviewing clients to handling post conviction and relief. This treatise will be of interest to public defender offices as well as private practitioners.Keeping pace with the rapidly changing face of America, Cultural Issues in Criminal Defense -3rd edition is the complete reference guide to one of the most challenging and topical subjects in contemporary criminal law.

Cultural Issues in Criminal Defense is an indispensable book for the criminal defense lawyer representing people from other cultures, nationalities or ethnic backgrounds. Lawyers defending these individuals face a host of characteristic concerns that include cultural barriers to communication, the need for qualified interpreters, unique Fourth and Fifth Amendment issues, cultural defenses, issues involving Native Americans, the immigration consequences of a conviction, and distinctive sentencing issues. Packed with practice tips and helpful precedent cases, Cultural Issues in Criminal Defense is the only book on the market that walks the practitioner through these issues in a clear, comprehensive and systematic way.

Extensively updated and expanded for its third edition, the guide now includes chapters on stimulating new subjects such as consular assistance issues, gathering evidence abroad, language proficiency concerns and international prisoner transfers.

Table of Contents


Summary Table of Contents   
Table of Contents    

Preface, Kari Converse    
About the Editor    
About the Authors 

CHAPTER 1 - Consular Resources and Litigation Strategies
     Mark Warren    
    §1.1 The Role of the Consulate in Criminal Defense    
        [a] -     Basic Concepts    
        [b] -     The Purpose and Scope of Consular Assistance    
        [c] -     Limitations on Consular Assistance    
    §1.2  Accessing Consular Resources    
        [a] -     Discussing Consular Assistance with the Client    
        [b] -     Enlisting the Consulate as an Ally    
        [c] -     Developing the Consular Relationship    
        [d] -     Solving Problems    
    §1.3 Litigating Consular Treaty Violations    
        [a] -     Past Litigation of Article 36 Violations    
        [b] -     Understanding and Applying Sanchez-Llamas
             v. Oregon    
        [c] -     Investigating and Verifying Consular Treaty 
        [d] -     Crafting Suppression Motions    
        [e] -     Securing the "Benefits of Consular Assistance" 
                from a Trial Court    
        [f] -     Conclusion    

CHAPTER 2 - Interviewing of Immigrant Clients and 
    Special Immigration Relief for Crime Victims 

    Kathlyn Mackovjak    
    § 2.1 Interviewing Immigrant Clients   
        [a] -     Gain Your Client's Trust    
        [b] -     Choose the Right Interpreter    
        [c] -     Refrain from Passing Judgment    
        [d] -     Let the Client Set the Interview Pace    
        [e] -     Know the Red Flags for Victims of Domestic 
            Violence and Human Trafficking - Ask the 
            Right Questions    
            [1] - Domestic Violence Red Flags    
            [2] - Human Trafficking Red Flags    
        [f] -     Obtain Psychological Assistance for Your Client    
        [g] -     Know Your Client's Children - Relief May     
            Be Available Through Child Victims    
    § 2.2 Overview of Immigration Remedies Available in the U.S. 
        for Immigrant Victims of Crime    
        [a] -    Violence Against Women Act (VAWA) 
            [1] -    Affirmative Filings of VAWA 
            [2] -    Defensive Court Representation through 
                VAWA Cancellation of Removal or 
        [b] -    U Nonimmigrant Status for Immigrant Victims 
            of Certain Crimes    
        [c] -    T Nonimmigrant Status for Victims of Human 
        [d] -    Confidentiality Provisions Embedded in VAWA, 
            U and T Nonimmigrant Status Applications    
    § 2.3 Resources and Finding Assistance for Immigrant Victims 
        of Crime    
        [a] -    Resources for Victims of Domestic Violence    
        [b] -    Resources for Victims of Human Trafficking  
CHAPTER 3 - Language Proficiency and Its Relation to 
    Language Evidence
Margaret van Naerssen  
    § 3.1 Determining Language Proficiency and Its Relation to 
        Language Evidence    
           [a] -    Second Language Proficiency as a Legal 
             [b] -    Myths    
    § 3.2 Basic Concepts for Better Understanding the Field    
             [a] -    Linguistic Concepts    
             [b] -    Language Assessment Considerations    
             [c] -    Linking Assessment Data to Legal Question    
    § 3.3  Linking Language Proficiency, Linguistic Evidence, 
        and Legal Issues    
             [a] -    Introductory Case: Language, Evidence, and 
            Legal Issues    
             [b] -    Communication in Alleged Criminal Activities   
                       [1] - Intelligibility Issues - Fraud    
                       [2] - Possible authorship:  Kidnapping 
                (Ransom Notes)    
                       [3] - Possible authorship - Hoax 
                (Labor Relations)    
             [c] -    Communications with Law Enforcement    
                       [1] - "Faking" Lower Proficiency?: 
                Drug Trafficking    
                       [2] - "Faking" Lower Proficiency?: Arresting  
                       a Hearing-Impaired Suspect    
    § 3.4    Interpreting Needs:  Attorney-Client vs. Court Room    
             [a] -    Importance of "Getting It Right" Early On    
             [b] -    Interpersonal and Formal Court 
    § 3.5  Working with an Expert    
    § 3.6  Conclusions    
    Appendix A:  The Use of Interpreters in Investigation and 
    Appendix B: Annotated Checklist on Language Assessment 
        and Experts    
    Appendix C: First Language Determination and Asylum    

CHAPTER 4 - Foreign Language Interpreters and the Judicial 

Virginia Benmaman and Isa Framer  
    § 4.1 The Right to an Interpreter    
        [a] -    The United States Constitution    
        [b] -    28 USC §1827 (Interpreters Act of 1978)   
        [c] -    Federal Rules of Evidence 604     
        [d] -    Federal Rules of Evidence 702 Testimony 
            by Experts    
        [e] -    Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 
            and Executive Order 13166    
    § 4.2 Appointment of Interpreters    
        [a] -    Determining the Need for an Interpreter    
        [b] -    Court Certification    
        [c] -    The Right to an Individual Interpreter    
        [d] -    Attorney as Interpreter   
    § 4.3 Qualifications and Standards of Practice    
        [a] -     Bilingual vs. Interpreter    
        [b] -     Skills Required of an Interpreter    
        [c] -     Modes of Interpreting    
    § 4.4 Interpretation versus Translation    
        [a] -    Definition and Meaning    
        [b] -    Translation Certification     
        [c] -    Translation of Legal Documents    
        [d] -    Translation of Transcripts    
    § 4.5 Interpreter Code of Ethics    
        [a] -    Interpreter as Officer of the Court     
        [b] -     Impartiality and Conflict of Interest    
        [c] -     Accuracy and Completeness    
        [d] -     Confidentiality and Attorney Client Privilege    
        [e] -    Scope of Practice    
        [f] -    Representation of Qualifications    
    § 4.6 Interpreted Proceedings    
        [a] -     Establishing Interpreter Qualifications    
        [b] -     Court Proceedings    
        [c] -     Attorney/Client and Other Legal Settings   
    § 4.7 Strategies for Working with Interpreters    
        [a] -    Making the Most Effective Use of the 
        [b] -    Awareness of Cultural and Linguistic 
        [c] -    Resources for Locating Interpreters    
    § 4.8 Preserving Interpreter Issues for Appeal    
        [a] -    Challenging the Denial of an Interpreter 
            on Appeal    
        [b] -    Abuse of Discretion Standard    
        [c] -    Plea Negotiations and Waivers    
        [d] -    Challenging Interpretation Errors    
    Appendix-Forensic Transcription and Translation of 
        Evidence Recordings: Guidelines    

CHAPTER 5 - Culturally Competent Criminal Forensic 
    Psychological Evaluations
    Ricardo Weinstein and Janet Weinstein    
    § 5.1 Introduction    
    § 5.2 Forensic Evaluations and the Law    
        [a] -    Purpose of Forensic Evaluations    
        [b] -    Need for Scientific Rigor and 
            Clinical Judgment    
        [c] -    Tensions between the Law and Behavioral 
    § 5.3 The Requirements of an Appropriate Forensic 
        [a] -    Purpose and Components of Evaluations    
        [b] -    Forensic Practice    
        [c] -    Differences between Forensic and Clinical 
    § 5.4 Acculturation    
        [a] -    Cultural Competence    
    § 5.5  Psychosocial Development History and Brain 
        [a] -    Psychosocial History and Cultural 
        [b] -    Brain Development    
        [c] -    Brain Development and Criminal Behavior   
    § 5.6 Neuropsychological Evaluations    
        [a] -    Level of Performance    
        [b] -    Patterns and Relations among Test Results    
        [c] -    Pathognomonic Signs    
        [d] -    Right-Left Differences    
        [e] -    Neuropsychological Testing and Culture    
    § 5.7 The Role of Clinical Judgment    
    § 5.8 Conclusion    

CHAPTER 6 - Immigration Consequences of Criminal 

Tova Indritz and Jorge Baron    
    § 6.1     Requirements to Advise a Defendant of Immigration 
        [a] -     Does the Padilla Decision Apply to Pleas Made 
            before March 31, 2010?    
    § 6.2     Immigration Status    
        [a] -     Citizenship    
        [b] -     U.S. Citizenship by Birth    
        [c] -     U.S. Citizenship by Acquisition at 
            Birth Abroad    
        [d] -    Derivative Citizenship    
        [e] -     Former U.S. Citizenship    
        [f] - Proof of Immigration Status    
         [g] -     Previous Immigration Actions    
    § 6.3     Types of Adverse Immigration Actions    
        [a] - Removal    
         [b] - Voluntary Departure    
        [c] -    Indefinite Detention   
     § 6.4     Grounds for Inadmissibility and Deportation    
        [a] -     Grounds for Inadmissibility    
        [b] -     Grounds for Deportation    
        [c] -     The Meaning of "Conviction"    
            [1] -     What Constitutes a Conviction?    
            [2] -     The Record of Conviction and Proving 
                a Conviction in Immigration Court    
                [A] - Standards to Determine Facts  
                           in Underlying Criminal Case    
            [3] -     When a Conviction Is Set Aside    
                [A] - Rehabilitative Set-Asides    
                [B] - Substantive or Procedural Bases 
                            for Setting Aside a Conviction    
            [4] - Pardons    
        [d] -     Crimes of Moral Turpitude    
        [e] -    Meaning of a "Single Scheme of 
    § 6.5 Aggravated Felonies    
        [a] -     History of the Definition of an Aggravated 
        [b] -     Current Definition of "Aggravated Felony"    
        [c] -     Consequences of Being an Aggravated 
    § 6.6  Possible Remedies and Relief    
        [a] -     Cancellation of Removal    
        [b] -     General Waiver   
        [c] -     Waiver of Fraud or Misrepresentation    
        [d] -     Waiver for Smuggling Immediate Family    
        [e] -     Alien Informant Waiver    
        [f] -     Battered Spouse or Child Waiver    
        [g] -     Victims of Crime Protections - the so-called 
            "U visa"    
        [h] -     Asylum, Withholding of Removal, and Relief 
            under the Convention against Torture    
        [i] -     Judicial Recommendations against 
        [j] -     Pardons, Expungements, and Vacated 
    § 6.7    Issues of Federal Jurisdiction to Review Removal 
        Orders and Retroactivity Issues    
        [a] -    Federal Jurisdiction to Review Removal 
        [b] -    Retroactivity of Ban on § 212(c) Relief 
            for Aggravated Felons    
    § 6.8  Federal District Judge as Immigration Judge    
        [a] -    Immigration Jurisdiction    
        [b] -    Immigration Relief as Part of Judicial 
            Removal Procedure    
        [c] -    Deportation as a Condition of Supervised 
            Release Is No Longer Allowed    
        [d] -    DHS Consent Required    
    § 6.9  Impact of Immigration Issues on the Service 
        of a Sentence    
        [a] -    Immigration Detainers    
        [b] -    Treaty Transfers    
        [c] -    Early Deportation for State and Federal 
    § 6.10  Creative Ideas for Avoiding or Mitigating 
        Immigration Consequences    
        [a] -    Ideas Concerning the Initial Interview 
            and Fact-Gathering    
        [b] -     Ideas Concerning Offense of Conviction    
        [c] -     Ideas Concerning the Record of Conviction    
         [d] -     Ideas Concerning the Sentence to be 
        [e] -     Ideas for Post-Conviction Relief    
        [f] -    Ideas Concerning Other Matters    
    Appendix I:  Understanding Your Client's 
            Immigration Status    
    Appendix II:     Requirements to Acquire Citizenship at Birth 
            Abroad under Relevant Statutes    
    Appendix III: Derivative Citizenship Statutes and Their 


CHAPTER 7 - Legal Challenges in Extradition Cases
    Linda Friedman Ramirez    
    § 7.1     Defending an Extradition from the United States    
        [a] -    Initiation of Extradition and Release    
                  [b] - Prehearing Release    
        [c] -    Extradition Hearing    
        [d] -    Extraditable Offenses    
        [e] -    Dual Criminality    
        [f] -    Jurisdictional Theory    
        [g] -    Probable Cause    
        [h] -    Double Jeopardy    
                   [i]  -    Convention against Torture    
    § 7.2     Defendants Extradited to the United States    
        [a] -    Extradition Decree and Record    
                  [b] - The Specialty Doctrine    
            [1] - Specialty as Domestic Law    
            [2] - Standing    
            [3] - Specialty Provisions    
            [4] - Specific Challenges    
                [A] - New or Added Charges    
                [B] - Conspiracy, Overt and
                            Predicate Acts    
            [5] - Specialty and Admission of Evidence    
            [6] - Redaction of Indictment    

CHAPTER 8 - Federal Law Issues in Obtaining Evidence 
, Shujaat Khan   
    § 8.1     Due Process Issues    
            [a] -    Foreign National Witnesses Outside the
                United States Are Not Subject to Subpoena    
        [b] -        Defendant's Inability to Subpoena a Foreign 
                Witness Does Not Implicate the Sixth 
        [c] -    No Violation of Fifth Amendment Right 
            to Due Process Because of "Venue"    
        [d] -    Due Process Violation if Government 
            Prevents Witness from Testifying or Failure 
            to Make Good Faith Effort    
                    [e] - Classified Information Procedures Act    
    § 8.2     Letters Rogatory or Judicial Assistance in Obtaining 
    § 8.3     Mutual Legal Assistance Treaties and Executive 
    § 8.4     Obtaining Foreign Documents and Records    
    § 8.5    Admission of Foreign Documents and Records    
        [a] -    Foreign Public Records    
        [b] -    Records Requiring Authentication    
        [c] -    Foreign Business Records    
    § 8.6     Witness Entry to the United States    
        [a] -        Defense Witness Willing and Able to 
                Travel to the United States    
        [b] -    Witness Incarcerated Abroad    
    § 8.7     Video-Conferenced or Satellite Testimony of 
        [a] -     Defense Use of Video-Conferenced 
            Witness Testimony    
        [b] -     Use of Rule 15 Depositions or Video-
                Conferenced Testimony by the Prosecution    
        § 8.8     Obtaining Foreign Evidence in Terrorism Cases    
        [a] -     Government Has Significant Leeway 
            through CIPA    
        [b] -     Procedure for Possible Disclosure of Classified 
        [c] -     Due Process Concerns and Seeking a Dismissal 
                in the Interests of Justice    

CHAPTER 9 - Taking Rule 15 Depositions Abroad in 
        Criminal Cases
 Ashish Joshi    
    § 9.1 Introduction    
    § 9.2 Rule 15 Depositions    
        [a] -    Basic Issues    
        [b] -    A Party Must Demonstrate Exceptional 
        [c] -    Witness Must Be Unavailable    
        [d] -    Testimony Must Be Material    
        [e] -    Countervailing Factors    
    § 9.3 Mechanics of Taking Foreign Depositions    
        [a] -    Plan Ahead    
        [b] -    Knowledge of Foreign Laws    
        [c] -    Privilege against Self-Incrimination and 
            Other Issues    
        [d] -    Blocking Statutes   
        [e] -    Immigration Rules and Regulations    
        [f] -    Scheduling a Foreign Deposition    
        [g] -    Location of a Foreign Deposition    
        [h] -    Manner of Taking a Foreign Deposition    
        [i]  -    Cultural Issues    
        [j]  -    Court Reporters, Interpreters, and 
        [k] -    Oath    
    § 9.4 Rule 15 Depositions and Right to Confrontation    
              [a] -    Right to Confrontation    
        [b] -    Unavailability    
              [c] -    Adequacy of Cross-Examination    
              [d] -    Presence of the Defendant    
    § 9.5 Rule 15 Depositions and Right to Present a Defense    
    § 9.6 Conclusion    

CHAPTER 10 - Practical Issues in Collecting Evidence 
Jack Fernandez and George Scott    
    § 10.1 The Need for Local Counsel    
    § 10.2 The Role of U.S. State Department and Foreign 
        Consular Assistance    
    § 10.3 Is There a Need for Self-Protective Measures?    
    § 10.4 Identifying an Appropriate Interpreter    
    § 10.5 Ensure You Obtain Admissible Documentary
        Evidence During the Investigation    
    § 10.6 Ensure You Know How to Conduct Interviews
        and Can Obtain Useful Trial Testimony    
    Appendix: Checklist    

CHAPTER 11 - Immigration Racial Profiling 
    Azadeh Shashahani    
    § 11.1 Introduction    
    § 11.2 Background on the Fourth Amendment and 
        Probable Cause    
    § 11.3 Raising Racial Profiling Claims    
        [a] -    Motions to Suppress    
            [1] - Federal Criminal Cases    
            [2] - Executive Office Immigration 
                Removal (EOIR) Cases    
        [b] -    Seeking Dismissal of Charges and Civil 
            [1] - Equal Protection-Need to Show Intent    
            [2] - Injunction (Equitable Relief)-Need to 
                Show Substantial Likelihood of 
                Future Irreparable Injury    
    § 11.4 Local Law Enforcement of Immigration Laws    
    § 11.5 Agencies that Address Racial Profiling Complaints    
        [a] -    Non-Governmental Organizations    
        [b] -    Governmental Agencies    
    [1] - Department of Homeland Security   
    [2] - Department of Justice    

CHAPTER 12 - Selective Prosecution 
    Cheryl D. Stein    
    § 12.1 The Legal Principle   
        [a] -    Equal Protection of the Laws    
        [b] -    The Doctrine of Selective Prosecution    
        [c] -    Not a Defense on the Merits    
    § 12.2 What Constitutes Selective Prosecution?    
        [a] -    Broad Prosecutorial Discretion    
        [b] -    Discretion Not Unlimited    
        [c] -    Discriminatory Effect and Purpose    
    § 12.3 Obtaining Discovery    
        [a] -    The Legal Standard    
        [b] -    Satisfying the Standard    
    § 12.4 The Death Penalty    
    § 12.5 The Appellate Standard of Review    
    § 12.6 Political Issues   
    § 12.7 Conclusion    

CHAPTER 13 - Cultural Issues Fourth Amendment Motions 
    to Suppress

    Alina M. Shell, Rene L.Valladares and Brenda Weksler    
    § 13.1 Extraterritorial Law Enforcement Activities    
        [a] -    Forcible Abductions    
        [b] -    Joint Venture Doctrine    
    § 13.2 Fourth Amendment Protections for Citizens 
        and Aliens     
        [a] -    Protections for United States Citizens in 
            Extraterritorial Searches    
        [b] -     Protections for Non-United States Citizens 
            in Extraterritorial Searches    
            [1] -     Protections for Noncitizens in 
                Extraterritorial and Territorial 
            [2] -    Exterritorial Protections for 
            [3] -    Protections for Undocumented Aliens 
                in Searches within the United States    
    § 13.3 Fourth Amendment Protections at the Border 
        and Its Equivalents    
        [a] -    The Border Search Doctrine    
        [b] -    Routine versus Nonroutine Searches and 
            [1] -    Functional Equivalents of the Border    
            [2] -    Extended Border Doctrine    
    § 13.4 Checkpoint Stops and Searches    
        [a] -    Roving Patrols Stops and Searches    
        [b] -    Searches at Sea    
        [c] -    Searches of International Mail    
        [d] -    Ethnicity, Reasonable Suspicion, and 
            Probable Cause    
        [e] -    Cultural Factors Relevant to Seizure    
    § 13.5 Culture and Consent to Search    
            [a]     Immigration Issues and the Fourth Amendment    
            [1] -    Immigration Consensual Encounters, 
                Factory Surveys and Workplace 

CHAPTER 14 - Cultural Issues in Motions to Suppress 
, Floralyn Einesman    

    § 14.1 Applicability of Miranda Rights    
         [a] -    Interrogation Inside the United States    
         [b] -    Interrogation Outside the United States    
                           [1] - Interrogation by Foreign Police    
                           [2] - Interrogation by U.S. Law
    § 14.2 Custody    
        [a] -    The Meaning of Custody    
         [b] -    The Refined Objective Standard for Custody    
     § 14.3 Interrogation    
         [a] -    The Meaning of Interrogation    
         [b] -    The Border Exception    
         [c] -    The Routine Booking Question Exception    
    § 14.4 Warnings    
     § 14.5 Assertion of Rights   
         [a] -    Right to Remain Silent    
         [b] -    Fifth Amendment Right to Counsel    
         [c] -    Sixth Amendment Right to Counsel    
     § 14.6 Waiver of Rights    
         [a] -    Knowing, Voluntary, and Intelligent 
            Waiver Standard    
         [b] -    Cultural Factors in the Validity of 
            Miranda Waiver    
     § 14.7 Voluntariness of Statement   
         [a] -    The Voluntariness Standard    
         [b] -    Culture as an Element in an Involuntary 
CHAPTER 15 - Defending the Crime of Illegal Entry and 
, Thomas K. Coan    

    § 15.1 Introduction    
    § 15.2 Elements and Statutory Application    
        [a] -    The Elements of Illegal Entry    
        [b] -    The Elements of Reentry after Deportation    
        [c] -    Illegal Entry vs. Reentry after Deportation    
        [d] -    Right to Counsel with a Misdemeanor 
            8 U.S.C. § 1325 Charge    
        [e] -    Reentry after Deportation: The Beginning 
            and Ending of the Crime    
        [f] -    Reentry after the Number of Specified Years 
            in the Deportation    
        [g] -    U.S. Citizens    
    § 15.3 Detention Issues    
        [a] -    Bail for Alien Defendants    
        [b] -    "Detainers" and "Holds"    
        [c] -    Immigration Judges and Denying Release    
        [d] -    Benefits to ICE Custody    
        [e] -    Aggravated Felons and Release    
    § 15.4 Plea Bargaining and Proceedings    
        [a] -    Standard Pleas in Immigration Cases    
        [b] -    Discrepancies between Districts and Plea 
        [c] -    Other Plea Resolutions   
        [d] -    U.S. Attorney and Binding ICE    
        [e] -    Magistrate Judges Taking Pleas    
    § 15.5 Trial Preparation and the Preliminary Hearing    
        [a] -    Investigating Criminal Immigration Cases    
        [b] -    Information from Immigration Court    
        [c] -    Preliminary Hearings    
        [d] -    Records of Prior Criminal Convictions    
    § 15.6 Pretrial Motions    
        [a] -    Motions to Suppress    
            [1] -    Statements    
            [2] -    Defendant's Body/Identity    
        [b] -    Motions to Dismiss    
            [1] -    Statute of Limitations and Speedy 
            [2] -    Collateral Attacks on Deportation    
                [A] -    Legal Basis    
                [B] -    Establishing the Collateral 
                    [i]  - Procedural Defect    
                    [ii] - Prejudice    
                [C] -    Exhaustion of Administrative 
                [D] -    In Absentia, Reinstated, 
                    Administrative, and Expedited 
                [E] -    Constitutional Issues, Disparity, 
                    Treaty Violations    
    § 15.7 Trial Issues    
        [a] -    Criminal Intent (Mens Rea)    
        [b] -    Evidentiary Issues    
        [c] -    Alienage Element    
        [d] -    The "Found In" Element    
        [e] -    Attorney General's Consent to Reenter    
    § 15.8 Trial Defenses    
        [a] -    No "Entry" - Not Free from "Official 
        [b] -    Good Faith Defenses    
        [c] -    Challenging the Deportation Documents    
        [d] -    Duress, Necessity, Corpus Delicti, Insanity    
    § 15.9 Sentencing    
        [a] -    The Guidelines Today    
            [1] -    Offense Level Calculations   
                [A] -    General Application Issues    
                [B] -    Offense Levels for Priors    
                    [i]  - The 16-Level Increase    
                    [ii] - The 12-Level Increase    
                    [iii]- The 8-Level Increase    
                    [iv]- The 4-Level Increase    
            [2] -    Criminal History    
            [3] -    Multiple Punishment Issues    
            [4] -    Supervised Release Issues    
        [b] -    Sentencing Departures and Variances    
            [1] -    In General    
            [2] -    Specific Types of Departures and 
                [A] -     Cultural Assimilation    
                [B] -     Criminal History and Mitigating 
                    Nature of Prior    
                [C] -    Consent to Deportation    
                [D] -    Treatment of Aliens in the 
                    Federal Bureau of  Prisons    
                [E] -    Disparity in Plea Practices    
                [F] -    Good Motives or Necessity    
                [G] -    Credit for Time Served  
                    Immigration Detention    
                [H] -    Pre-Indictment Delay    
    § 15.10  Conclusion    

CHAPTER 16 - The Maritime Drug Law Enforcement Act
Tracy Dreispul 

§ 16.1 Introduction
[a] - Operation Panama Express
[b] - A "Serious International Problem" and
"Specific Threat" to the United States
[c] - Statutory Overview 
[d] - Submersible Vessels
§ 16.2 Jurisdiction
[a] - Constitutional Jurisdiction
[b] - Statutory Jurisdiction
[1] - Subject to the Jurisdiction of the
United States
[2] - Burden of Proof 
[3] - Jury Finding on Jurisdiction 
§ 16.3 Due Process Challenges
[a] - Nexus Requirement
[b] - Forum Shopping
[c] - Practical Concerns
§ 16.4 International Law
[a] - The Protective Principle
[b] - Universal Jurisdiction
§ 16.5 Pre-Trial Motions and Trial Issues 
[a] - The Right to Consult the Consul
[b] - The Fourth Amendment
[c] - Unreasonable Delay
[d] - Right to Confront Witnesses
§ 16.6 Sentencing Issues
[a] - Quantity-Driven Sentences 
[b] - Role Adjustment and Safety Valve
[c] - Treaty Transfer

CHAPTER 17 - Raising Cultural Defenses
Alison Dundes Renteln

§ 17.1 Excuse Defenses 
[a] - Insanity
[1] - The Cognitive Insanity Defense 
[2] - The Volitional Insanity Defense
[3] - Automatism
 [4] - Battered Women Defense
[5] - Culture-Bound Syndromes 
[b] - Duress
[c] - Diminished Capacity
[d] - Provocation as Partial Excuse 
§ 17.2 Justification Defenses 
[a] - Self-Defense 
§ 17.3 Defenses Relating to Offense Elements
[a] - Mistake of Fact
[b] - Lack of Specific Intent
§ 17.4 De Minimis Offenses 
§ 17.5 Formal Cultural Defense
[a] - Child Abuse
§ 17.6 Substantive Cultural Defenses Based on
Constitutional Principles
[a] - Religious Defenses 
[b] - Equal Protection
§ 17.7 Arguments for the Cultural Defense 
§ 17.8 Strategic Considerations 

CHAPTER 18 - Using Cultural Experts
James G. Connell, III
§ 18.1 Uses of Cultural Experts
[a] - Defense Uses for Cultural Experts
[b] - Government Uses of Cultural Experts
[c] - Finding Cultural Experts 
§ 18.2 Admissibility of Cultural Expert Testimony
Under Daubert 
§ 18.3 Admissibility of Cultural Expert Testimony
Under Frye
§ 18.4 Assistance to the Trier of Fact 
[a] -  "Fit" Under Daubert
[b] - Invading the Province of the Jury 
[c] - Ultimate Issue of Fact 
§ 18.5 Qualifications
§ 18.6 Other Evidentiary and Constitutional Issues
[a] - Relevance 
[b] - Probativeness and Prejudice
[c] - Injection of Ethnicity
§ 18.7 Funding Cultural Experts
[a] - Constitutional Bases
[b] - Statutory Bases

CHAPTER 19 - Cultural Issues in Jury Selection
James G. Connell, III.

§ 19.1 Challenges to the Jury or Grand Jury Venire
Based on Discrimination
[a] - Sixth Amendment Fair-Cross-Section
[1] - The Distinctive Group Requirement
[2] - The Fair and Reasonable Representation
[3] - The Systematic Exclusion
[4] - Rebutting the Prima Facie Case
[b] - Equal Protection Challenge
[1] - The Cognizable Group Requirement
[2] - Substantial Underrepresentation in
the Venire
[3] - Opportunity for Discrimination 
[4] - Rebutting the Prima Facie Case 
[c] - Federal Statutory Challenges
§ 19.2 Voir Dire
§ 19.3 Peremptory Challenges 
[a] - Batson's First Step: Establishing the Prima Facie
 [1] - The Cognizable Group Requirement
[2] - Inference of Discrimination
[b] - Batson's Second Step: Rebutting the
Prima Facie Case
[c] - Batson's Third Step: Proof of Purposeful
Racial Discrimination

CHAPTER 20 - Cultural Issues in Voir Dire
Fredilyn Sison
§ 20.1 Introduction
§ 20.2 The Difference between the Traditional Method
and in-the-Moment Voir Dire
§ 20.3 The Lawyer behind the Mask 
§ 20.4 What Is the In-the-Moment Approach to
Jury Selection?
§ 20.5 Get Out of Your Head and Into Your Heart 
§ 20.6 The Eight Steps of In-the-Moment Approach
to Voir Dire 
§ 20.7 The Eight Steps in Detail 
[a] - Identify those Matter(s) that Trouble You
about the Case 
[b] - Explore Your Personal Feelings about the
Matter(s) that Trouble You 
[c] - Determine Why You Are Troubled
[d] - Reconcile Your Views or Opinions of the
Matters of Concern
[e] - Share Your Feeling(s) about the Matter(s)
with the Jury
[f] - Ask Them What They Think about What
You Have Just Said
[g] - When You Get a Response Validate What
the Jurors Say 
[h] - Continue to Explore Their Attitudes In an
Accepting and Tolerant Way 
§ 20.8 Example of In-the-Moment Voir Dire
 [a] - Illegal Re-Entry
[b] - Fraudulent Documents 
[c] - Cultural Practices 
§ 20.9 Conclusion 

CHAPTER 21 - American Indian Culture and Federal
, Jon M. Sands 
§ 21.1 Historical Background 
§ 21.2 Criminal Jurisdiction in Indian Country 
[a] - Jurisdictional Framework
[b] - Who Is an Indian? 
[c] - Indian Country 
[d] - The Major Crimes Act 
[e] - The "Peculiarly Federal" Exception
§ 21.3 Double Jeopardy Issues
§ 21.4 Sentencing Issues
[a] - Guidelines Applicability 
[b] - Criminal History 
[c] - Departures for Extraordinary
[d] - Death Penalty and Three Strikes
§ 21.5 Case Illustrations of Indians in Federal Court 
[a] - Trial
[1] - Mr. C
[2] - Mr. B.
[3] - Mr. and Mrs. Y
[b] - Sentencing
[1] - Mr. Y
[2] - Mr. S
[3] - Mr. T.
[c] - Cultural Syndromes
[d] - Physiological Differences
CHAPTER 22 - Cultural Issues in Sentencing
Marcia G. Shein

§ 22.1 Culture-Related Sentencing Strategies
[a] - Strategic Considerations
[b] - Criminal Behavior Accepted or Expected in the
Defendant's Culture
[c] - Stronger Cultural Motive for the Crime
[d] - Additional Punishment from the Defendant's
[e] - Immigration Consequences
[f] - Defendant's Unusual Behavior at
§ 22.2 Basic Structure of the Federal Sentencing
§ 22.3 Ethnicity versus Cultural Heritage
§ 22.4 Downward Departures under the Federal Sentencing
Guidelines and Variances under 18 U.S.C. § 3553
[a] - Overview
[b] - The Importance of § 5H1.10 
[c] - Mental and Emotional Conditions 
[d] - Family Ties and Responsibilities, and
Community Ties
[e] - Lesser Harms
[f] - Coercion and Duress 
[g] - Immigration Consequences
[h] - Cultural Assimilation 
[i] - Fast Track Courts 
[j] - Combination of Circumstances 
§ 22.5 Arguing 18 U.S.C. § 3553 Sentencing Factors
§ 22.6 Immigration Detainers/Terms of Confinement/
Probation/Supervised Release

CHAPTER 23 - Using Mitigation Videos to Bridge the
Cultural Gap at Sentencing,

Doug Passon
§ 23.1 Making the Case for Movies
[a] - Persuasion
[b] - Control
[c] - Relaxed Evidentiary Standards at Sentencing
§ 23.2 Creating a Powerful and Persuasive Sentencing
[a] - Sentencing Videos Should Be Used
[b] - The Three Elements of a Successful
Sentencing Film
[1] - Solid Story
[A] - Solid Story Is Unique
[B] - A Solid Story Is Lean
and "Integrated" 
[C] - A Solid Story Is Moving 
[D] - A Solid Story Employs Small
Stories to Tell the Big Story
[2] - Compelling Characters
[A] - Character Overview
[B] - Character Is Connection
[C] - Character Is Action 
[3] - Emotionally Evocative Images
[c] - Test Screenings 
[d] - A Case Study: United States v. Sabourjian
§ 23.3 Equipment and Production Resources 
[a] - Overview
[b] - Do It Yourself (DIY) Video Production 
[1] - Video Camera
[A] - Recording Media
[B] - High Definition versus
 [C] - External Microphone Input 
[D] - Need for Headphone
Input Jack
[E] - Suggested Models 
[2] - Microphones
[A] - Wireless Lavaliere
[B] - Wired Lavaliere
[C] - Additional Microphone
[3] - Computer
[4] - Editing Software
[5] - Tripod
[c] - Out-Sourcing the Sentencing Video

CHAPTER 24 - Appeal and Post Conviction Review
Sonya Rudenstine
§24.1 Explaining the Appellate and Postconviction
[a] - The Right to Appeal and the Filing of the
Notice of Appeal 
[b] - The Client-Contact Letter
[c] - The In-Person Meeting
[d] - Client Involvement
[e] - Waivers of Appeal or Postconviction Review
[f] - Postconviction Review
[g] - Possible Habeas Corpus Pitfalls: Exhaustion,
Statutes of Limitations and Abuse
of the Writ 
§24.2 Ineffective Assistance of Counsel
[a] - Basis for Ineffective Assistance of
Counsel Claims
[b] - Application of the Strickland Standard 
[c] - Failure to Raise a Cultural Defense
at Trial 
[d] - Failure to Obtain Assistance from
[e] - Failure to Obtain Proper Interpretation
§ 24.3 Challenging Guilty Pleas 
[a] - Whether to Challenge a Guilty Plea.
[b] - Governing Law 
[c] - Knowing and Intelligent Nature
of the Plea
[d] - Voluntariness of the Plea
[e] - Withdrawal of the Plea Based on Counsel's
Failure to Advise of Deportation




Author Detail

About the Editor:
Linda Friedman Ramirez currently practices international, federal and state criminal defense in St. Petersburg, Florida. She has emphasized the representation of foreign nationals in civil, criminal and administrative matters since 1981. She has been a member of the CJA Panel in the District of Oregon and is currently a member of the CJA Panel in the Middle District Florida. Before relocating her practice to Florida, she served as a Consulting Attorney to the Mexican Consulate in Portland, Oregon, and in June 2002, received the Oregon Criminal Defense Lawyers Association President's Award for Advocacy on behalf of Hispanics in Oregon.

Jorge L. Barón became the Executive Director of the Northwest Immigrant Rights Project (NWIRP) in April 2008, after serving as a staff attorney with the organization since 2006. Jorge is originally from Bogotá, Colombia, and immigrated to the United States in 1986. He graduated from Duke University in 1995, and spent five years working in the film and television industry in Los Angeles, California, before pursuing a legal career. Jorge received his law degree from Yale Law School in 2003. After graduation, he served as a law clerk for Judge Betty B. Fletcher of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit in Seattle. Jorge then served as an Arthur Liman Public Interest Fellow at New Haven Legal Assistance Association in New Haven, Connecticut, before moving back to the Pacific Northwest and starting his position at NWIRP.  In 2008, Jorge was appointed by Governor Gregoire to serve on Washington's New Americans Policy Council. 

Virginia Benmaman, PhD. is distinguished Professor Emeritus of the College of Charleston, Charleston, SC. She developed the first and only Master of Arts Program in Bilingual Legal Interpreting in 1995 and served as its director until her recent retirement. She has been a federally certified judiciary interpreter since 1981 and certified by the American Translators Association (ATA) for Spanish-English translation since 1988. Virginia has published extensively on interpreter related issues, including the popular Bilingual Dictionary of Criminal Justice Terms (co-authored) and the Bilingual Handbook for Public Safety Professionals. She has presented scholarly papers at national and international conferences and has served as consultant and evaluator on a number of interpreter related projects throughout the U.S.

Thomas K. Coan is a criminal defense lawyer in Portland, Oregon.  A 1980 graduate of Bowdoin College in Brunswick, Maine, Tom moved to Portland in 1983 and worked as an investigator at the Metropolitan Public Defenders in Portland before and during the time he went to Northwestern School of Law at Lewis and Clark College, where he graduated from in 1988.  He has been in private practice since then. Tom is the CJA Panel Representative for the District of Oregon.

James G. Connell, III is currently a partner in Connell, Sheldon & Flood, P.L.C, in Fairfax, Virginia, where he handles criminal defense and habeas corpus cases. He has previously served as an Assistant Public Defender in Fairfax, Virginia, and Research & Writing Specialist at the Federal Public Defender for Nevada. James' publications include co-authoring "Search and Seizure Protections for Undocumented Aliens: The Territoriality and Voluntary Presence Principles of the Forth Amendment" in Georgetown University's American Criminal Law Review.  James was editor-in-chief of the William and Mary Journal of Women and the Law. James is the co-editor of Cultural Issues in Criminal Defense (1st ed. 2000).  He may be contacted at

Kari Converse is an Assistant Federal Public Defender in Albuquerque, New Mexico.  She is a 1985 graduate of the University of New Mexico School of Law and has worked in criminal defense, prison mental health monitoring, representation of abused children, and international criminal justice, consulting both in Latin America and the United States for international agencies, the Mexican Capital Legal Assistance Program, and the local Mexican Consulate. She is a fluent Spanish speaker and certified interpreter. As a law student, she interned in the student law clinic of the Universidad Autónoma de Guadalajara.

Tracy Dreispul is an Assistant Federal Public Defender in the Southern District of Florida's Appellate Division. She previously worked as an AFPD in the Middle District of Florida in both the trial and appellate divisions.  Prior to beginning her criminal defense career, Tracy worked as a litigation associate at Paul, Weiss, Rifkind, Wharton & Garrison in New York, and as a law clerk to the Honorable William L. Garwood, Senior Circuit Judge, on the United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit.
Floralynn Einesman is a tenured professor at California Western School of Law where she teaches criminal procedure, evidence and advanced mediation. Floralynn began her legal career as a trial attorney at the Federal Defenders of San Diego. After practicing criminal defense for seven years, Floralynn joined the law firm of Procopio, Cory, Hargreaves and Savitch in San Diego. She left the practice of law to pursue a teaching career, first at University of San Diego School of Law and now at California Western School of Law.  Floralynn’s publications include, "Drug Testing Students in California—Does It Violate the State Constitution?" 47 San Diego Law Review (forthcoming Aug. 2010); "Drug Testing of Students: A Legal and Public Health Perspective," 23 Journal of Contemporary Health Law and Policy 231 (2007)(co-authored); "Training a New Breed of Lawyer: California Western’s Advanced Mediation Program in Juvenile Hall," 39 California Western Law Review 53 (2002) (co-authored); "The Effects of Mediation in a Juvenile Incarceration Facility: Reduction of Violence Through Transformation," 49 Cleveland State Law Review 255 (2001) (co-authored); "Confessions and Culture: The Interaction of Miranda and Diversity," 90 Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 1 (1999); "Vampires Among Us: Does a Grand Jury Subpoena for Blood Violate the Fourth Amendment?" 22 American Journal of Criminal Law 327 and "How Long Is Too Long? When Pretrial Detention Violates Dues Process," 40 Tennessee Law Review 1 (1993).  She can be reached at

Jack Fernandez is a partner at Zuckerman Spaeder, Tampa, Florida and concentrates his practice on state and federal white collar criminal defense and False Claims Act litigation, principally for clients in the health care industry who confront allegations of fraud. His clients range from Fortune 500 companies to health care providers to a Middle Eastern country to individual corporate officers and directors. Before entering private practice, Mr. Fernandez served as an Assistant U.S. Attorney for the Middle District of Florida, where he investigated, tried, and argued appeals in numerous complex federal cases, including health care fraud, the Federal False Claims Act (qui tam), defense contractor fraud, tax fraud, securities fraud, satellite signal piracy, and intellectual property cases. Following law school he served as a law clerk for the Honorable J. Dickson Phillips of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit. A graduate of the U.S. Naval Academy, Mr. Fernandez was a naval aviator, flying the F-14 Tomcat from the aircraft carrier USS Independence. He flew combat missions in support of U.S. Army and Marine Corps expeditionary forces, and was awarded both the Navy and Armed Forces Expeditionary Medals.

Isabel Framer is an Oregon and Tennessee State Court Certified Judiciary Interpreter residing in Ohio. She is a national policy consultant on interpreters related to access to justice in legal settings.  She provides continuing legal education to judges and attorneys and training to law enforcement.  Isabel has served as an expert and expert witness throughout the United States on cases that have been successfully reversed, dismissed or resulted in a lesser charge due to improper interpreter procedures. Among other  boards and committees, she served as chair of the National Association of Judiciary Interpreters and Translators and is currently serving on the Supreme Court of Ohio's Advisory Committee on Interpreter Services and Governor Ted Strickland's Ohio Judicial Appointment Recommendation Panel and the Ohio Commission on Hispanic/Latino Affairs.

Tova Indritz is a criminal defense lawyer in private practice in Albuquerque, New Mexico, handling criminal trials, appeals, and  post-conviction matters in federal, state, and occasionally Indian tribal courts. She is a national expert regarding defense counsel's obligation to advise on immigration consequences of criminal convictions and orally argued on behalf of the amicus curiae in the New Mexico Supreme Court in State v. Paredez, 101 P.3d 799 (N.M.2004), cited by the U.S. Supreme Court in Padilla v. Kentucky. She practices in the area of immigration consequences of criminal convictions, both by advising noncitizen clients and their lawyers considering resolution of criminal cases, and by representing clients in post-conviction litigation when there has been a failure to consider immigration consequences. She was awarded the New Mexico Criminal Defense Lawyers Association's Driscoll Award for Outstanding Lawyer of the Year, the Albuquerque Bar Association's Lawyer of the Year Award, and  National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers' (NACDL) President's  Distinguished Service Award.  She is included in the Best Lawyers in America. Tova has testified on various criminal justice  issues before the U.S. House and Senate, the U.S. Sentencing Commission, and the Committee to Review the Criminal Justice Act.  She  is currently co-chair of NACDL's Immigration Committee and chair of  its Native American Justice Committee; she has also been co-chair of  NACDL's Indigent Defense Committee.  She is a graduate of Yale Law School.  She is currently on the board of the New Mexico Criminal Defense Lawyers Association and the American Civil Liberties Union of New Mexico.  Prior to entering private practice in 1995, she was the Federal Public Defender for the District of New Mexico. Her contact information is 2040 Fourth Street, NW, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87102, (505) 242-4003.

Ashish S. Joshi is a shareholder attorney with Lorandos Joshi.  A trial lawyer, his practice focuses on complex commercial litigation, international litigation and white-collar criminal defense. He is admitted to the Supreme Court of the United States, the District of Columbia, the state bars of New York and Michigan and the bar in Gujarat, India. He is an author of several articles on the topics of internal investigations, international anti-bribery investigations and prosecutions, white collar defense strategies, and complex commercial litigation.

Shujaat Khan  is a law student at Stetson University College of Law and a graduate of Purdue University. He is a member of the Moot Court Board, which is a part of Stetson's nationally recognized advocacy board. He wrote "U.S. Trial Exposes Guyana's Internal Political Conflicts and International Enforcement Issues" for the International Enforcement Law Reporter in December 2009. He has worked with lawyers in both the United States and abroad. Shujaat is trilingual in English, Hindi, and Urdu; he is proficient in Arabic and can read and write in Farsi.  He maintains a keen interest in criminal and international law and anticipates practicing in these areas upon graduation.  

Kathlyn M. Mackovjak  is a  supervising immigration attorney with Gulfcoast Legal Services, a private non-profit legal aid organization based in St. Petersburg, Florida.  She is one of the few attorneys in the Tampa Bay area to work on human trafficking cases as it pertains to the victims for immigration relief.  She is a member of the Clearwater Area Human Trafficking Task Force and regularly trains law enforcement and the community at large on the sensitive issues surrounding survivors of human trafficking.  She works with victims of domestic violence, rape and torture and represents these survivors in their immigration proceedings, including asylum claims. She is a coordinator and adjunct professor for the Immigrant Rights Law Clinic her organization runs in conjunction with Stetson Law School in Gulfport, Florida.

Maria Cecilia Marty has a Masters Degree in Translation & Interpretation, Spanish, from the Monterey Institute of International Studies and is a Certified Federal Interpreter. She was first Administrative Hearing Certified in the state of California, then Accredited English into Spanish by the American Translators Association before becoming Federally Certified. She interprets for U.S. district courts in criminal proceedings, most recently in Washington D.C., and has substantial experience in preparing Spanish language forensic recording transcripts. She served as an expert witness in the Daytona Beach, Florida, Alfonso case, which provided legislators a basis for a law requiring that all interpreters in the State of Florida be Consortium certified. She also serves as an expert witness in matters of interpretation and translation. She has taught Sight Translation and Consecutive Interpretation for the Bilingual Legal Masters Program at the University of Charleston in Charleston, SC as well as continuing education courses for the University of South Florida and Florida International University. She presents workshops for the ATA Continuing Education Professional Series and holds seminars and workshops to help prepare students for the Consortium and Federal Court Interpreting Certification Exams. She can be reached at; or at (787) 536-0101. If more current contact information is needed, please check the ATA website Directory at or contact the Administrative Office of the US Courts in Washington, D.C. 

Doug Passon is a graduate of Indiana University and Washington University School of Law and an Assistant Federal Public Defender in the District of Arizona.  He has published several criminal law related articles, which have appeared in national publications such as the Washington University Law Quarterly, The Champion, and the Liberty Legend.  Doug is also an award-winning documentary film maker. For the last several years, he has been combining his passion for filmmaking with his practice of law by producing short documentaries for use as mitigation at sentencing.  He has taught lawyers across the country how to effectively integrate videos and other powerful visuals into their sentencing practice.

Alison Dundes Renteln Ph.D., J.D. is a professor of political science and anthropology at the University of Southern California, where she is also vice-chair of Political Science. Her books include Cultural Law, International Comparative and Indigenous (Cambridge, 2010) co-edited with James A.R. Nafziger and Robert Kirkwood Paterson, Multicultural Jurisprudence: Comparative Perspectives on the Cultural Defense, co-edited with Marie-Claire Foblets (Oxford: Hart, 2009), The Cultural Defense (Oxford, 2004), Folk Law, co-edited with the late Alan Dundes (University of Wisconsin, 1995), and International Human Rights: Universalism Versus Relativism (Sage, 1990). Her articles on cultural defense include: "The Importance of Culture for the Justice System" and "When Westerners Run Afoul of the Law in other Countries" Judicature, 92, (5) (2009), and "The Use and Abuse of the Cultural Defense." Canadian Journal of Law and Society, 20 (1) (2005), 47-67. Professor Renteln received the 2005 USC Associates Award for Excellence in Teaching (campus-wide) and the 2006 Phi Kappa Phi Award for Creativity in Research for The Cultural Defense. 
Sonya Rudenstine is a solo practitioner in Gainesville, Florida, specializing in criminal appellate advocacy in both state and federal court.  Prior to opening her own practice, she represented death row inmates in post-conviction and on direct appeal as a staff attorney for the Equal Justice Initiative in Montgomery, Alabama and for the Center for Death Penalty Litigation in Durham, North Carolina. Ms. Rudenstine graduated from New York University School of Law in 1998.  She then served for a year as a law clerk for the Honorable Alan B. Handler of the New Jersey Supreme Court and, simultaneously, as the Death Penalty Clerk for the entire court. She has written extensively in the area of race and the law.

Jon M. Sands is the Federal Public Defender for the District of Arizona. He serves as the chair of the Federal Public Defender Guidelines Committee, which has statutory authority to advise and consult the United States Sentencing Commission. He is also an adjunct professor at the Arizona State University Sandra Day O'Connor College of Law. Jon graduated from Yale with honors in 1979 and from the University of California, Davis, School of Law in 1984.  He served as editor-in-chief of the law review.  From 1984-85, he clerked for the Honorable Mary M. Schroeder on the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit.  He was an associate at Meyer Hendricks from 1985 until 1987 and was an Assistant Federal Public Defender from 1987 until 2004, when he was appointed to his present position. His numerous publications include "Indian Jurisdiction in Federal Court" in Defending a Federal Criminal Case.

Alina M. Shell is a Research and Writing Specialist with the Federal  Public Defender's Officer for the District of Nevada. She received both  her undergraduate and law degrees from the University of Nevada, Las Vegas.     

George Scott is a retired IRS criminal investigations manager, currently working as a private investigator in Tampa, Florida and as a consultant to several tax firms in Tampa and across the United States. He specializes in white collar criminal investigations such as tax fraud, bank fraud, and health care fraud, as well as complex drug investigations. His experience in locating witnesses and conducting interviews and analyzing voluminous documents has been invaluable in these types of cases, as well as other cases, including murder, investor fraud, etc.  His expertise was particularly helpful in identifying and locating witnesses and key defense documents in Colombia, that could subsequently be used in federal court.  

Azadeh Shahshahani is the Director of the National Security/ Immigrants' Rights Project at the American Civil Liberties Union of Georgia.  The project is aimed at bringing Georgia and its localities into compliance with international human rights and constitutional standards in treatment of refugee and immigrant communities, including immigrant detainees.  Azadeh previously served as Interim Legal Director for the ACLU of Georgia.  Before her move to Atlanta, she worked with the ACLU of North Carolina as Muslim/Middle Eastern Community Outreach Coordinator. In that capacity, she initiated a statewide campaign against racial profiling and coordinated a CLE seminar to train attorneys to represent Muslim and Middle Eastern clients facing human rights violations. Azadeh is a 2004 graduate of the University of Michigan Law School, where she served as article editor for The Michigan Journal of International Law.  While in law school, Azadeh completed a fellowship with the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees in Washington, DC. Azadeh currently serves as the Chair of Georgia Detention Watch; and Vice Chair of Refugee Women's Network. Azadeh is also one of the Founders of Human Rights Atlanta and currently serves on its Coordinating Council. Azadeh was born in Iran and moved to the United States at age sixteen.  She is the recipient of the University of Georgia Law School 2009 Equal Justice Foundation Public Interest Practitioner Award.

Marcia G. Shein is a nationally recognized attorney in matters of federal plea, sentencing mitigation, appellate and post-conviction litigation. She has consulted with some of the best federal criminal defense attorneys in the nation on these matters as well as at trial to protect case issues for sentencing and appeal should the client be convicted.  She has written many articles for law journals, spoken before national law conventions on sentencing mitigation in complex drug and white collar cases, and has appeared on television.  She is a life member of the National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers and member of the executive board of the Georgia Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers. Her articles have appeared in publications such as The Champion, The Federal Lawyer, and The Georgia Defender on topics such as the Federal Sentencing Guidelines and the crack cocaine sentencing disparity, an issue she has been fighting for 20 years.  She is the editor and author of a self-help manual for inmates. She has represented clients from Alaska to Maine and beyond U.S. borders in complicated federal criminal cases. Her national office is located at 2392 North Decatur Road, Decatur, GA 30033.  She can be reached at 404-633-3797, and

Fredilyn Sison is an honors grad of Cornell University and New York University School of Law. Currently an Assistant Federal Defender at the Federal Defenders of Western North Carolina in Asheville, she has served as an AFD in the Districts of Idaho, Nebraska, and Nevada, as well as visiting counsel at the Defender Training Branch and at the U.S. Sentencing Commission in Washington, D.C. She has authored articles on jury selection, cross examination and the effects of incarceration on families for national journals.  She is on the faculty of various trial and sentencing advocacy programs. She is a certified practitioner in psychodrama and sociometry, and her interests include running, reading, piano, Improv and Playback Theater. Fredi may be reached at 

Cheryl D. Stein is a sole practitioner in Washington, D.C., with more than 27 years of experience in criminal defense. She is a graduate of Yale College and Yale Law School. She has taught at the Harvard Law School intensive trial advocacy workshop and, from 2004 through 2007, was the legal columnist for Capital Community News. Op-ed pieces by Ms. Stein have been published in the Washington Times and on the website. An active participant on the National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers listserv, she also serves on the association's Committee on Rules of Procedure. She can be contacted through her website at or at 202-388-4682. 

Rene L. Valladares was born and raised in Nicaragua.  He is the chief of the trial and appellate divisions, Office of the Federal Public Defender for the District of Nevada.  Prior to that, he was an associate at Sheppard & White in Jacksonville, Florida. Rene is board certified in Criminal Trial Advocacy by the National Board of Trial Advocacy.  He has an L.L.M. in International Law from the University of Miami.  Rene"s publications include co-authoring "Search and Seizures Protections for Undocumented Aliens: The Territoriality and Voluntary Presence Principles of the Fourth Amendment" in Georgetown University's American Criminal Law Review. Rene was the co-editor of Cultural Issues in Criminal Defense (1st ed. 2000).  He may be reached at

Margaret van Naerssen, has a Ph.D. in applied linguistics/language acquisition (University of Southern California) and coordinates graduate-level teacher training in cultural and linguistic diversity at Immaculata University in Pennsylvania.  She is also occasionally an English language specialist overseas with the U.S. Department of State.  Since 1997 she's done expert consultant/witness work in forensic linguistics at the federal and state level, in criminal and civil cases involving murder, rape, drugs, money laundering, robbery, fraud, contract and plain language guidelines, slander, medical malpractice, and interpreting issues.  Most cases have involved non-native speakers of English.  She has given presentations on forensic linguistics at the Smithsonian Institute in Washington D.C. and at the FBI Academy as well as at professional conferences and has published in the area of language proficiency and evidence. She may be reached at 
Mark Warren, a human rights researcher and legal consultant based in Ottawa, Canada, specializes in the application of international law to domestic criminal cases.  He is the author of several instruction manuals for consular officers and for attorneys representing foreign nationals facing capital charges.  His other recent publications include articles in the Hofstra Law Review and the William and Mary Bill of Rights Journal.  Mark was a member of Mexico's legal team in its successful lawsuit against the United States at the International Court of Justice, which addressed consular rights violations in the cases of over 50 death-sentenced Mexican nationals. Mark can be reached at:

Janet Weinstein is a tenured Professor of Law at California Western School of Law in San Diego. She received her B.A. from U.C.L.A. and her J.D. from the University of San Diego. She has been teaching in an interdisciplinary program in child welfare since 1988, and currently teaches an interdisciplinary course in community organizing and problem solving. She is the Director of the JD/MSW Program at California Western as well as the Director of the Clinical Internship Program. Her scholarship is concentrated on legal education, child welfare, and on how knowledge about the brain interacts with the law. 

Ricardo Weinstein is a forensic neuropsychologist. He is an expert in cultural issues and cultural competent comprehensive evaluations of brain functioning. He has qualified as an expert witness in federal courts and multiple states.  Presently his practice is focused on death penalty cases at pretrial and post-conviction phases.  He has qualified as an expert in mental retardation and has performed numerous evaluation post Atkins decision.  Because he is bilingual and bicultural, he works with many Spanish speaking criminal defendants.

Brenda Weksler was born in Buenos Aires, Argentina and moved to the United States with her family at age 14.  She has degrees in English and philosophy from the University of Nevada and is graduated from the Boyd School of Law in 1999.  She served as a law clerk to Judge Kathy Hardcastle, Eight Judicial District Court in Las Vegas, Nevada.  She has been an Assistant Federal Public Defender in Las Vegas, Nevada since 2003, where she has been practicing as a trial attorney defending individuals charged with criminal federal offenses.


Praise for Cultural Issues in Criminal Defense, 3rd Edition:

"In Cultural Issues in Criminal Defense, editor Linda Friedman Ramirez has assembled a uniquely helpful collection of articles to assist defense counsel in navigating these waters. Particularly helpful is the way the book breaks down the cultural matters at issue according to each stage of trial and according to the substantive crimes commonly charged against immigrants. Separate chapters on jury selection, voir dire, sentencing, and appeal make for easy reference. And chapters covering illegal entry and international drug interdiction cases are key resources for defense counsel who regularly handle these matters. Upon reviewing Cultural Issues in Criminal Defense, my initial reaction was, "Why didn't I have this book when I was an Assistant Federal Public Defender?!" I highly recommend this book, particularly for those who practice in federal court or frequently represent immigrants in state criminal proceedings It will be an incredibly useful tool for effectively representing your clients."
-Mark P. Rankin, Partner, Shutts & Bowen LLB is a Co-Chair of the NACDL Sentencing Committee. Review from The Champion


"Cultural Issues in Criminal Defense will not gather dust on any criminal defense attorney's shelf. It provides ideas, angles, and insights that will greatly assist any criminal defense attorney -- and perhaps any other attorney -- who faces the daunting task of guiding a person from another culture, nationality, or ethnic background through the American legal system."
Lori Seppi,  Utah Bar Journal


"This book is a great resource for lawyers representing foreigners charged with crimes, especially in the United States. The book is an excellent reference for practitioners, criminal justice professionals, and professionals working in comparative and international criminal law. An advantage of the book is that, in addition to describing the issues arising under each of the topics, it provides very practical advice on how to deal with the various areas and subareas."

Bruce Zagaris, Berliner, Corcoran & Rowe LLP, Washington, DC


"I have the pleasure of serving as a Consulting Attorney for the Mexican Consulate in Orlando, Florida, and I found the book to be a tremendous resource in criminal cases, including representing a Mexican national in a collateral appeal intending to set aside a judgment and sentence of 25 years for deficient representation at trial. The book should be on the bookshelf of everyone interested in criminal law. It offers powerful tools for the practitioner."
Diego Handel, Daytona Beach, Florida. 


"I am currently a supervising attorney with the Office of the Public Defender in Montgomery County, Maryland and have worked in that capacity for nine years. Prior to that I was in private practice for twenty-seven years. During the time that I have practiced law, I have never encountered a book like Cultural Issues in Criminal Defense which addresses so many issues involved in the representation of multicultural clients. I don't believe any lawyer who practices criminal law should be without this book."
Alan C. Drew, Assistant Public Defender, Rockville, Maryland 


Praise for Cultural Issues in Criminal Defense, 2nd Edition:

"The second edition of Cultural Issues in Criminal Defense, with a new editor and some new writers, improves an already excellent, invaluable and necessary resource. It is a "must have" for the criminal defense lawyer whose practice involves representing people of other cultures and languages or handling cases with foreign law issues. This unique book serves as a valuable reference to both the new and experienced practitioner. No advocate should be without it in his or her library."
-The Champion (National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers)

"I have been a student of the Fourth Amendment since 1971 when I took criminal procedure back in what was the Fourth Amendment's "stone age." For 30 years now, I've been seeking to understand the tao of the Fourth Amendment. Understanding is everything, and one will find a significant aid in Cultural Issues in Criminal Defense, 2d Edition. How does a citizen of Mexico or any other country understand police-citizen relationships? Courts assume that our own citizens do, when, for example, consent to search or talk with the police is an issue, but we clearly do not. It is purely legal fiction. When a person from another culture is in the hands of the police, they are even more lost and clueless than our own citizens, and our duty as criminal defense lawyers is to expose why people do not understand what is happening when they consent to a search or talk to the police. This book will greatly aid us in that duty."
-John Wesley Hall, President, NACDL (National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers)

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